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Isochrysis galbana (now known as Tisochrysis lutea) is a microalgae that occupies an important position in the aquatic food chain. Its nutrient profile makes it an excellent food source for many other organisms and is also suitable for applications in other products.
Phytoplankton is a collective term for various microalgae, diatoms and other types of algae. Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) is included under the term phytoplankton. However, its structure is different from diatoms.
Both names are used synonymously. However, the name Isochrysis galbana is the obsolete version and has been reclassified to Tisochrysis lutea.
Since I. galbana is now referred to as Tisochrysis lutea, the classification is somewhat complicated because the genus has been changed. However, with no changes to the broader hierarchical taxonomy. Tisochrysis lutea belongs to the family Isochrysidaceae. Collectively they can be found again in the class Prymnesiophyceae, which are characterized among other things by the fact that they are unicellular and have chloroplasts.
Since the name Isochrysis galbana is still widely used by industries and many people are specifically looking for Isochrysis galbana, although Tisochrysis lutea is meant, the former name will also be used in the further course.
Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) is not the only species of the genus Isochrysis. I. litoralis, I.maritima and I. zhanjiangensis also belong to it. However, most of the commercial cultivation insists on the species Isochrysis galbana.
If the genus Tisochrysis is assumed, T. lutea is the only species in this genus.
Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) occurs worldwide, has been found in every ocean and around every continent except Antarctica. However, in isolated parts of Antarctica, it is still possible for Isochrysis galbana to occur.
Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) is cultivated in closed systems like many other microalgae. Mixotrophic cultivation is most suitable, followed by pure phototrophic cultivation. In tests based on heterotrophic-only cultivation, this was found to inhibit biomass growth and yield.
Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) thrives in nature, in oceans at a wide range of temperatures and levels of salt. For this reason, the cultivation of Isochrysis galbana is possible in different media.
There is a lot of literature on this subject, which aims to determine the ideal composition of the medium, for the best yields of biomass.
Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) may contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), depending on the culture. Stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid have also been detected.
Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) is mainly used in animal feed. As mentioned above, in the wild Isochrysis galbana forms an important component in the aquatic food chain. This makes the microalga extremely popular in aquaristics for fish feed, as well as for feed to shellfish.
In addition, Isochrysis galbana is finding more and more applications in cosmetics. It has promising properties for skin and hair. In some places Isochrysis galbana is also used in food, which is not allowed in every region. Thus, special attention should be paid to the regulations in this regard.
Clinical studies suggest that the use of Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) extract in preparations prevents thinning and hair loss. At the same time, the hair is strengthened and fortified.
On the other hand, Isochrysis galbana has another interesting aspect, which is based on natural brownish color. When used in creams and lotions, it can act as a natural tanning agent, which at the same time stimulates the production of natural melanin in the skin. This speeds up the tanning time and thus reduces the UV rays needed.
Isochrysis galbana (Tisochrysis lutea) is most commonly marketed industrially in the form of powder. It is also possible to purchase the microalga as a paste or liquid live culture.
Isochrysis galbana is a very versatile micro-algae which is used in cosmetics, animal feed and food supplements.
Due to its anti-oxidative substances, such as beta-carotene, it protects the skin from external influences and reduces skin irritation. Isochrysis also has an anti-viral effect.
As an animal feed in aquaristics, isochrysis provides the animals with vital nutrients and helps them to develop healthily. The species that can benefit from Isochrysis as a foodstuff include shrimp, shellfish and finfish.
Isochrysis also has a lot to offer as a food supplement. The DHA (omega-3 fatty acid) it contains is good for the brain, vision and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Isochrysis galbana shows the potential in care products, which are used for the treatment and care of hair.
In addition, Isochrysis galbana extract has antibacterial activity. Especially against Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis it shows effect and can be used to keep the skin microbiome in balance and in use as a preservative in formulations.
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